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You are here ❯ Home ❯ Projects ❯ DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PEDE STRIAN CONTROLLED RICE STRIPPER.

DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PEDE STRIAN CONTROLLED RICE STRIPPER.

 

 

 

 Format: Ms-word   Chapters: 1-5

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 May 13, 2022 |  09:28 pm |  26


Project Topic On DEVELOPMENT  AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF  A PEDE STRIAN CONTROLLED RICE  STRIPPER.

INTRODUCTION
 
1.1 Background Information

Rice has become a staple food in Nigeria homes for quite some time now and the local  supply,  38%  is  found to be far  below the demand [Oputa et al., 1985) and hence effort is to be directed towards increasing the product quantity and quality. Most of Nigeria farmers practise mixed cropping like interplanting rice with row of maize or sorghum or millet or cowpea (Ladipo and Ajobo, 1986).
Rice  harvesting  requires   cutting  of  the  matured  head, threshing,  cleaning and bagging. With mechanical means,  it is  not as tedious  as  when  done  manually.  Apart  from  the  intensive  labour involved,  losses  are  encountered  at  various  stages  of  harvesting  and processing  which  is  usually  higher  with  manual  than  mechanical methods of harvesting.
Different crops require different labour type and power requirement for harvesting, however there is need to design a harvester for our small rice fields  and also for the interplanted rice fields.  This must be simple in structure, high working efficiency and adaptable to our  farming  system.  The  design  will  be  an  alternative  to  manual harvesting meant for small farm  size.  The machine in  mind will  strip heads alone and fabricate with  available local materials.  The standing stripped straw can be cut for other usage or be plowed into the soil.


1.2 Nutritional and Industrial Importance of Rice

Rice meal and Rice bran can be produced from Rice i.e cow-bran produced  from  hulling  paddy  is  low  food  value.  Then  bran  or  meal produced in the pearling process comprises the pericarp, alerurone layer, embryo and some of the endosperm which contains most of the vitamins and proteins of the grain which is of high food value.
Rice bran contains a percentage of lipids which are about 14% to 17% oil of which 3% to 9% is wax which can both be extracted.

Rice is mainly used as a food, being boiled or steamed and eaten with meat, fish and vegetables. It has also many other uses in food and commerce. In 1930 it was estimated that 86.5% J apanese rice produced was for food, 5.2% for making wines, 4.9% for cakes, 1.2% for seed, 1.1%
for sugar and smaller amount for salted bean  paste,  soya sauce and vinegar and for starch. It is also been made use of in various forms as a medicine in general throughout Asia (Grist, 1986).


1.3 Rice Production and Consumption

Rice is  grown  in  regions of Asia,  Africa, central and south America and Australia. About 90%  of southern East Asia land area is devoted to rice cultivation. There are only two cultivated species, Oryza glaberrima steud and oryza sativa linn. Oryza glaberrima is confined to West Africa as upland crop but replaced with oryza sativa (Grist, 1986).
Oryza glaberrima is relatively grown in some small areas in West Africa. Oryza sativa is widely grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions, either as a dryland (upland) crop but more usually in water (fadama). The ripe seed is the staple food in many Eastern countries.
Oloruntoba  et  al  (2007)  reported  that  United  Nations  General Assembly  (NUGA) declared the year 2004  as  the International Year of Rice (IYR).  This  was  because rice has  become primary food source for more than half of the World’s Population (Fresco, 2003; FAO, 2003). Rice is essential for food security, poverty alleviation and improves livelihood (The Comet, 2002).
In  sub-Saharan  Africa,  Nigeria is  the second largest importer  of rice and also ranked ninth in the world as reported by IITA (1994). The local demand as  at 2005  was put at 5 million  metric tones  while the domestic  supply  was  3.2  million  metric  tones  leaving  a  deficit  of 1.8 million metric tones. Oloruntoba (2007) also reported that the Federal Government of Nigeria launched as of J une 2005, the New Rice for Africa (NERICA)   which   was   aimed   at   increasing   local   production   and contributes to food security and import substitution. The primary policy actions  directed  towards  increasing  productivity  and  income  of  rice farmers and to remove main barriers preventing the transformation of small-scale farmers to modern farmers who will make use of productive technology and credit facilities available (Balogun, 1998). Four factors are responsible for rice demand which are population growth, current levels of income and expected increase in real income, elasticity   of  rice  demand  (Oputa   et  al.,   1985).   This   provides   the relationship between changing incomes and changing purchase of rice and  expected  price  increase  compared  to  substitute  for  food.  The population  increase  (2.6%)  with  the  remarkable  shift  in  the  dietary behaviour mostly increase the domestic demand for rice far beyond local supply level giving way to massive importation, resulting in great price increase (Oputa et al, 1985).


1 .4 Statement of Problem

Nigeria  agriculture is  characterized  by  fragmented  small  size of farm holdings ranging between one and two hectares. This is due to non availability of farmland in a single location. Also some farmers practices mixed cropping which require each crop to be independently harvested (Ladipo and  Ajobo 1986).  Majority  of our  farmers  have poor  financial background which limits them from purchasing modern farm machinery. On small farms, the bulk of the farm produce is needed for family food supply while the remaining surplus is sold for small amount of money (Subair, 1986).
Rice farming in a system as stated above is generally in small scale and  are  predominantly  cultivated  manually  from  planting  to  post harvesting.  Up  to  40%  of  the  total  cultivation  input  is  expended  on harvesting,  hence  there  is  need  for  mechanical  harvesting  to  reduce operational   cost,   time,   harvest   losses   and   improve   grain   quality (Carruthers, 1985). Harvest losses, like front or header, threshing and cleaning/ separation   losses   pose  great   problem   in   the  agricultural production  and  any  machinery  developed  for  harvesting  must  have objective of reducing the harvest losses to the minimum value (Ferreira et al, 2001).

Over  75%  of  farmland  in  Nigeria  today  are  put  under  cereals production  which  are subjected  to changes  in  cropping practise from place to place within the country, aimed at bringing the supply of food into better balance with consumption (Oputa et al, 1985). Pressure has been increasing rapidly to raise the quality of farm produce and at the same time to reduce inputs because of the cost of these inputs and rapid population growth, the food demand of which we are to meet. Losses and waste will need to be curbed even more than in the past at harvesting and  post  harvesting  stages,  and  fewer  men  and  more  cost  effective methods and machines will be required to reduce the adverse effect the high inflation is having on labour and machinery costs (Ferreira, 2001). This provides an opportunity for objective analysis of the efficiency, cost effectiveness of the few machines in the system that are presently in use and the locally manufactured alternatives which could replace at least some of them (Patel, 1989). The possibility of design simplification needs to  be  put  in  mind  constantly,  and  greater  sophistication  should  be limited  mainly  to  applications  which  can  substantially  increase  cost effectiveness,  safety  and  suitable  for  our  small  scale  farming  system



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