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ANALYSIS OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE ON ANIMAL PROTEIN BY HOUSEHOLDS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS

 

 

 

 Format: MS Word   Chapters: 1-5

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 May 18, 2022 |  07:38 pm |  137




Project topics and materials on ANALYSIS OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE ON ANIMAL PROTEIN BY HOUSEHOLDS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS

INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background of the Study 


Food which is a combination of macro and micro nutrients is a basic necessity of life (Kushwaha, Sen, and Yakassai, 2007). Food must contain all the necessary nutrients to make it balance. A balanced diet can be defined as one that contains all the six classes of food components viz carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, mineral salts, fat and oil and water. According to Neeliah and Shakar (2008), nutrition is the fundamental prerequisite for human welfare and contributes to human and social capita. Nutritious foods are those food items that contain the required macro and micro nutrient in a normal proportion, including fruits and vegetables, which contain nutrients such as vitamins, protein, carbohydrates and minerals that are required to sustain the body and healthy living. Eating food without the right nutrient composition could lead to malnutrition. Wardlaw and Kessel (2002) define malnutrition as a condition of impaired development caused by either a long–term deficiency or an excess in energy and or nutrient intake. Malnutrition is a state where adequate nutrients are not delivered to the cells to provide the substrate for optimal functioning (Akinyele, 2005). 


The importance of protein as one of the macro nutrients needed by the body cannot be overemphasized. Protein is required for the growth, maintenance and repair of all body tissues, protein for human consumption usually comes from plants and animals, pant proteins are deficient in certain amino acids notably methionine, tryptophan and lysine which are necessary for proper healthy growth (Frank and Harold, 2001). According to Britton (2003), the main difference between animal protein and plant protein is that, animal products contain different ratios of amino acids and higher concentrations of protein than most plant products do. Most plants contain proteins in lower levels. Hence, in a strictly vegetarian diet, it is important to mix and match different plants to get the variety of protein and amino acids necessary for good health. Animal proteins are said to possess superiority over vegetable protein. Animal proteins are generally referred to as complete proteins. They contain all the amino acids needed in the body as opposed to plant proteins in which one or more of these essential amino acids are lacking (Oloyede, 2005). 


Nigeria with numerous natural and human resources still remains amongst the least consumers of protein in Africa (Ajana, 1999). Abiodun (2001) observed that the protein intake by Nigeria is about 53.8g with only 6.0 to 8.44 g/head/day of fish and animal origin while the United Nation/ Food Agricultural Organisation (FAO) estimated minimum protein requirements at 70gm/capita/day and the recommended protein intake from animal source to be 35gm/capita/day.It is not surprising that Nigeria is highly deficient in animal protein security with the per capita consumption put at 9.3g/day as against the 35g/day recommended by the FAO to be the minimum requirement for the growth and development of the body (Esobhawan,Ojo and Ikheloa, 2008). 
Ibeawuchi,Chindo and Ahamefule, (2000) attributed the low protein intake by many Nigerians to the decline in animal production. Rosegrant and Thornton (2008) argued that population and economic growth in developing countries is contributing to the overheating of the food based economy since the demand for food, particularly animal protein which includes meat and fish has been on steady increase.  


Beef and fish being important sources of protein have played important roles in the pattern of food consumption in Nigeria and they form an integral part of the diet of Nigerian people and are considered to be essential protein foods (Elliot and Ezenwa, 1988).  
 Beef is a product of livestock farming which has remained an essential component of the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy. Livestock is a good source of animal protein which is needed for proper and balanced diet and beef is the meat obtained from matured cattle.Beef is a major source of animal protein because it contains many nutrients nourishing substance needed by the human body. Its high protein content is available for the growth and repair of the body and as a source of energy. It is an important source of several vitamins, minerals and other nutrients including potassium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, zinc, manic, riboflavin and thiamine. The world demand for beef has risen sharply during the last few decades due to increase in population improvement in technology and increasing incomes (Dafwanget al., 2001).  


Fish is also one of the most important animal protein foods available in the tropics (Eyo, 2002). In many Asian countries, over 50% of the animal protein intake comes from fish. Although, Olatunde (1989) reported that fish constitutes 40% of animal protein intake in Nigeria, the African proportion is 17.5% (Willmanet al., 1998). Fish consumption has impact on human being throughout various stages of human life, including pregnancy and childhood. According to Alexandratos (2000), the ever increasing share of fish in animal protein intake and total protein supply implies that fish has become more and more important in people’s diet.Over the past 15 years, fish has enjoyed an explosive increase in demand around the world, a demand that has also boosted its price (Amaoet al., 2006). FAO (1991) predicted an increase in demand for fish, pointing that the majority of this increase will result from expected economic development, population growth and changes in food habits. 


1.2 Problem Statement 
One of the greatest problems facing households in Nigerian is how to improve the quality and quantity of their diet as well as addressing the problem of nutritional imbalances (Abubakar, 1998). Literature have shown that Nigeria are inadequately fed and this is due mainly to lack of balance diet especially protein needed for growth and development. (Kushwahaet al., 2007). 
Malnutrition problems in developing countries can be examined in terms of inadequate consumption of macro nutrients (Abdullahi and Aubert, 2004). The inadequate intake of these nutrients hinders healthy growth, affect the individual ability to undertake productive activities and lowers utilization of other nutrients (Aromolaran, 2004). The deficiency of protein in the diet will invariably affect the income generating ability, manpower development and overall contribution to the nation’s GDP. Malnutrition in Nigeria has been linked to food shortage both in terms of the quantity available and access to the right type (quality) of food to provide balance diets (Durojaiye, 2001). 


A review of the data of food supplies available for consumption in different countries shows that the per caput proteins intakes in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive is comparatively low, not only is the total protein deficient but the quality of dietary protein available is inferior to that consumed in developed countries (FAO/WHO 2001).Most people consume the minimum level of calorie but fail to get the necessary protein and essential vitamins and minerals required for leading a healthy life (Bender and Smith, 1997) 
In recent years, increased knowledge and awareness of human requirement for healthy growth have focused increasing attention on the unique roles of livestock and fisheries resources in human development (CBN, 2002).  


Fish and beef which are very important sources of animal protein play vital roles in feeding the world population and contributing significantly to the dietary protein intake of millions of the populace (FAO, 1990).There is heightened awareness in the developed world of the nutritional and health benefit of fish and beef product low in fat and calories and high in protein, vitamins, minerals and poly-saturated fatty acids.  
CBN (2006) put the demand for fish in Nigeria at 1.5 million metric tones per annum and the current domestic output at 600,000 metric tones per annum, thereby leaving a shortfall of 899,400 metric tones. Nigeria spends over N100 billion on fish importation annually and the fish demand in Nigeria stands at over 2.66 million tones per annum, while the importation rate is over 750,000 metric tones (Oota, 2012).  
With rising population, improved income standard of living in Nigeria, the country may be facing severe beef shortage by the year 2050. According to Food and Agricultural organization FAO report, by 2050 an expanded world population will be consuming two third more animal proteins than it does today. It also stated in the report that meat consumption is projected to rise nearly 73 percent by 2050 (Cruise, 2011).  


Household nutritional status has been observed to be influenced by socio-economic factors which include prices of food items and non-food items, households’ income and how it is shared among basic needs (FAO, WHO and UNN 1985). According to Koutsoyianis (2001), consumption pattern of a family is determined by family income, sexes in the family, household income, Age, price sales, taste, education status, religion etc. In addition, we have socio cultural variables like family size and composition, occupational groups, taste and preferences as well as the educational level of the household head. These factors punctuate the food composition and habits of households to the extent that households compensate for nutritional requirements 


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