TAPHIRE A WRITERSUBMIT ASSIGNMENT FAQ Testimonies Latest Post Sign Up Login

You can earn #120,000 Naira Monthly from Home with Expertnaire Affiliate , wheather you are a student, unemployed or looking for WORK FROM HOME opportunity.

Learn More. 

You are here ❯ Home ❯ Projects ❯ ANALYSIS OF COWPEA MARKETING AND PRICE TRENDS IN SOME SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN MARKETS IN KADUNA STATE

Business Plan Categories

agriculture 3

ANALYSIS OF COWPEA MARKETING AND PRICE TRENDS IN SOME SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN MARKETS IN KADUNA STATE

 

 

 

 Format: MS Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 79+   Attributes: Downloadable - Instantly in MS WORD

 Amount: 3,000

 May 18, 2022 |  07:44 pm |  137



Project topics and material on ANALYSIS OF COWPEA MARKETING AND PRICE TRENDS IN SOME  SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN MARKETS IN KADUNA STATE

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background to the Study 


Agricultural production plays an important role in the economic development of Nigeria. An estimated 60-70% of Nigerians live in the rural areas and majority is engaged in small scale agricultural production (Okunneye, 2001; Adegboye, 2011; Akpan et al., 2014). Apart from contributing to the largest share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), agriculture is the largest non-oil foreign exchange earner, the largest employer of labour and a key contributor to wealth creation and poverty alleviation in Nigeria (Adamu et al., 2013). Yet several problems associate the various activities that are involved in the production and marketing activities in this great enterprise. The sound management and conservation of this resource is one of the priority issues of the global strategy for sustainable development (Kolosovet al., 2012). The pivotal role of marketing in enhancing rural income and in the overall development of any economy of the world cannot be overemphasized. In fact, one of the major functions of Agricultural marketing is to bring items of trade from surplus to deficit areas. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata) is one of such items of trade in the Nigerian Agricultural sector. Cowpea marketing entails all the activities involved in moving cowpea from the point of production to where it is needed by the final consumer. It involves series of transaction costs which are reflected in the size of the marketing margin. These margins vary among brands, types, location and over time (Akpan et al., 2014). 
 
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most ancient crops known to man. Its origin and subsequent domestication is associated with pearl millet and sorghum in Africa. It is now a broadly adapted and highly valued crop, cultivated around the world primarily for seed, but also as a vegetable (for leafy greens, green pods, fresh shelled green peas, and shelled dried peas), as a cover crop and for fodder (Adeola et al., 2011). Cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils. Many cowpea cultivars have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars, (Abah et al., 2012). It is indigenous to Africa but also widely grown in other continents of the world. In Nigeria, cowpea is grown widely in the North West and North Central geo-political zones while substantial quantities are also grown in the other four geo-political zones of the country (Davis et al., 1991).  
 
Cowpea is an important source of plant protein in the developing world and most especially in West Africa; it is the most important economically and nutritionally indigenous African legume crops, especially in West and Central Africa (WCA). Cowpea is rich in protein and constitutes a staple food for people in rural and urban areas (Baributsa et al., 2010).  It can be consumed alone when cooked or mix with other foods such as rice, maize, millet, plantain, yam, gari, etc. Large quantity of cowpea is also consumed as deep oil fried product called “akara” and a steamed product called “moi-moi‟ in most parts of Nigeria. 
 
The need for the marketing system of cowpea to be well structured and efficiently organized cannot be over emphasized. It enhances the pace of economic development by encouraging specialization, generation of foreign exchange earnings, development of an exchange economy, provision of income and employment opportunities for 
marketing agents, (Olukosi  et al.,  2005).  
 
In performing the role of marketing, products pass through various marketing agents or intermediaries called market channels. These market intermediaries are the wholesalers and retailers and both play an important role in the marketing system (Girei et al, 2013). Instability in commodity prices among markets could be detrimental to the marketing system and the economy as a whole. It could cause inefficiency in resources allocation among sellers and consumers depending on the source of variability. It could also increase poverty level among low income earners in the society (Polaski, 2008: Akpan et al., 2014). 
 
Price of cowpea is highly unstable between seasons and consumers pay different amounts for the same product in different markets separated by just a few kilometers (Akpan et al., 2014). Post-harvest pricing and marketing, suggested that agriculture, like any other private enterprise, is propelled by entrepreneurs who are motivated by profits from their investments and entrepreneurship. Therefore, in order to ensure maximum returns, farmers must make their production decisions considering the most favourable place, time and form in which their products could be marketed (Ayinde and idris, 2004). Consequently, prices of agricultural products vary from month to month and even from day to day. Prices also differ between various grades of a product and also differ between alternative markets. 
 
Grain marketing is organized in formal and informal places. Formal market places are designated locations managed by public organizations. Informal markets are not officially recognized and therefore, not subject to most government controls. An informal market may be a group of women who assemble every week in the centre of a village or who buy from farmers on roadsides. Farmers usually accept lower prices because they are not aware of the market prices or because they lack the time, money or means to transport cowpea grains to the market (Faith et al., 2011). Cowpea passes from farmers to consumer through various market channels. Farmers usually sell their surpluses to rural assemblers, who in turn sell to urban wholesalers directly or through commission agents. Large wholesalers hold large stocks for sale to retailers when prices are high enough to pay for cost of procurement, storage, handling and a margin for profit. Small wholesalers handle smaller volumes and use markets in their homes neighborhoods and acquire the grains from wholesalers and commission agents for sale to consumers in smaller quantities, (Mishili et al., 2007). In Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo and Benin grain traders constitute themselves into commodity-based associations to promote better marketing conditions and discuss general guidelines for grain prices. Traders discuss grain pricing during association meetings but prices are fixed by individual traders. Factors influencing price setting are: grain quality, selling time, transport, storage, market tolls, taxes and taxes (Gomez, 2014). 
 
In Nigeria the organization of traders in Kano's Dawanau market -the largest cowpea market in the world - differs from other trading organizations. Traders are organized into a formal market union. "Dawanau Market Development Association" comprised of smaller associations such as Dawanau Farm Produce Merchant Association, Restaurant Owners Association, Transport Operator Associations, etc. The main role of the major association is to negotiate with the government over issues such as taxes and market infrastructure. (Langyintuo et al., 2003) 
 
 
 
 
1.2  Problem Statement 
Sustainability of agricultural activities is hinged on effective price system.  In the recent past, the market for agricultural commodities in Nigeria has shown a pattern of longterm price fall and short-term price instability (IMF, 2010; Akpanet al., 2014). The volatility in price of agricultural commodities in Nigeria has been attributed to various factors including variances in bargaining power among consumers, cyclical income fluctuation among sellers and consumers, seasonality of production, natural  shocks  such  as  flood,  pests, diseases, and inappropriate response by farmers to price signals  (Gilberts, 1999; Udoh and Sunday, 2007; Adebusuyi, 2009). 
 
Short-run fluctuations in agricultural commodity prices occur between production seasons (Cashin and Pattillo, 2000). During harvesting periods, prices of farm product are generally low due to surpluses; in the off season, prices rose due to reduced production and seasonal changes (Akpan, 2002;Akintundeet al., 2012). Hence, agricultural commodity price is one of the major determinants of quantity of commodities supplied by farmers and demanded by consumers. Product price instability among agricultural commodities is a regular phenomenon in markets across Nigeria (Akpan, 2007;Akintundeet al., 2012). Instability in commodity prices among markets could be detrimental to the marketing system and the economy as a whole. It could cause inefficiency in resources allocation among sellers and consumers depending on the source of variability. It could also increase poverty level among low income earners in the society (Polaski, 2008).  On the order hand, a unified product price among markets is not a rational policy to pursue in a developing country like Nigeria. This is because of the deteriorating marketing infrastructures, increase in cost of externalities and the nature of most agricultural products which often resulted in significant differences in the total variable costs incurred by sellers and consumers in these markets. 
 
Information on agricultural commodity price and its trend in both developed and developing countries like Nigeria is important to both producers and consumers. Prices vary almost throughout the year and understanding the trend of such variations is therefore essential for good planning by the producers, consumers and policy makers. (Zoellick, 2008).Poor market knowledge and other structural imperfections have been asserted to cause inefficiency in agricultural commodity markets but the role of information in pricing, the dynamic process of information trans-mission between markets in price discovery and its implications for marketing efficiency is very important (Mendoza and Rosegrant, 1995; Adekoya et al., 2013) 
 
 
In view of the above, the study will seek to address the following questions related to marketing of cowpea: 
i. What are the socioeconomic characteristics of cowpea marketers in Kaduna state? 
 
 
ii. What are the marketing channels of cowpea in Kaduna? 
 
iii. What is the price trend of cowpea in rural and urban markets of Kaduna state? 
 
iv. Are cowpea markets in the rural and urban areas of Kaduna state integrated? 
 
v. What are the constraints encountered by marketers in marketing cowpea in Kaduna state? 
 
 
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The broad objectives of this study was to analyze cowpea marketing and price trends in some selected rural and urban markets in Kaduna State, Nigeria and the specific objectives were to: 
i. describe the socio economic characteristic of cowpea marketers in the study area; 
 
 
ii. determine the marketing channels of cowpea in the study area; 
 
iii. examine the trend in price of cowpea in rural and urban markets; 
 
iv. analyze market integration of cowpea between rural and urban markets 
in the state; 
 
v. describe the constraint encountered in the marketing of cowpea in the study area. 
 
 
1.4 Justification for the Study 
The extent of market integration has often been used to measure the success of market liberalization and structural adjustment policies in developing countries (Mushtaq, 2006). As part of several ways to increase agricultural production and economic growth of the state, efficient marketing policy based on sound empirical facts is one of the prerequisites. Hence, understanding the direction and magnitude of grain price transmission between the rural and urban markets in the state will provide indispensable input to policy makers to formulate workable policies for the agricultural sector. 
 
Seasonal price comportment of cowpea is as a result of its production sequence. The two periods of glut and shortage nature of cowpea production prompted a research of this type. Maisamari (2002) observed that widespread interregional and inter-seasonal variations in prices tend to hamper adequate planning of farming, industrial operations and output expansion plans. Ayinde and Idris (2014) recorded that seasonal price patterns can be used as a guide for developing a marketing plan when they are examined along with supply, demand, information and other marketing concepts. This research will therefore go a long way to improve cowpea marketing as it relates to inter market and seasonality of price trends



This Project Topic and Material is Complete Chapter One to Five

Purchase this Material Now

Recommended



×

Download research materials from TCI Library

Business Plan Writing


Let us write your complete business plan. Comprehensive plan you can use for loan and grant application or get our sample plan for just N 10,000 only. If your plan is not in our database please contact us @ sales@tcilibrary.com or Call 08102930395 and we will update it. A bankable business plan for your dream business with the features: 

  1. Executive Summary
  2. Introduction
  3. Products & Services 
  4. Industry and Market Analysis
  5. Competition 
  6. SWOT analysis 
  7. Operational plan
  8. Marketing plans
  9. Financial Plan

 

Advert.

Quick Material Download

Advert.

Project Research Categories

books 2
BSc-HND 710
MSc 791

Project Departments

Accountancy 165
Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering 19
Agricultural Economics project topics and materials 37
Agricultural Engineering Technology project topics and materials 7
Agricultural Extension project topics and materials 6
Agricultural Science Education project topics and materials 1
Animal Science project topics and materials 14
Arabic and Islamic Studies project topics and materials 1
Architecture 3
Banking and Finance 10
Banking and Finance project topics and materials 1
Bio Chemistry 14
Building Technology 6
Business Administration and Management 179
Business Education project topics and materials 7
Chemical Engineering 18
Chemistry Education project topics and materials 1
Christian Religious Studies Education project topics and materials 2
Civil Engineering 11
Commercial and Property Law project topics and materials 1
Computer Engineering 26
Computer Science 26
Crop Science project topics and materials 4
Curriculum and Instruction Project topics and materials 42
Economics 97
Education 115
Educational Administration and planning project topics and materials 39
Educational Foundations project topics and materials 15
Educational Psychology 7
Electrical Electronics Engineering 23
English 9
English Education project topics and materials 1
English Language Education project topics and materials 2
Estate Management 5
Fine and Applied Arts Creative Arts project topics and materials 1
Fine And Applied Arts project topics and materials 1
French Education project topics and materials 5
Geology and Mining 2
Guidance and Counselling project topics and materials 1
Handouts 2
Hausa Education project topics and materials 1
Health Education project topics and materials 9
History and International Studies project topics and materials 3
Home Economics Project topics and materials 19
Industrial Chemistry 3
Industrial Relations and Personnel Management 7
Islamic Studies Education project topics and materials 15
JAMB WAEC NECO NABTEB SSCE NCE ND HND BSC MSC PGD 1
Law 3
Library and Information Science Education project topics and materials 41
Library Science 2
Local Government and Development Studies project topics and materials 13
Marketing 10
Mass Communication 39
Measurement And Evaluation 1
Micro Biology 8
Office Technology and Management 7
Physical and Health Education project topics and materials 18
Physics 1
Political Science 18
Public Administration 122
Science Education project topics and materials 5
Science Laboratory Technology 10
Social Studies Education project topics and materials 6
Sociology 11
Soil Science project topics and materials 1
SPORTS MANAGEMENT 3
Statistics 85
Survey 93
Teaching English As A Second Language 7
Technical Education project topics and materials 1
Theatre Art and Film Studies project topics and materials 3
Theatre Arts project topics and materials 3
Tourism 8
Urban and Regional Planning 1
Veterinary Medicine Project topics and materials 1
Vocational And Technical Education project topics and materials 15

Project Departments

Accountancy 165
Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering 19
Agricultural Economics project topics and materials 37
Agricultural Engineering Technology project topics and materials 7
Agricultural Extension project topics and materials 6
Agricultural Science Education project topics and materials 1
Animal Science project topics and materials 14
Arabic and Islamic Studies project topics and materials 1
Architecture 3
Banking and Finance 10
Banking and Finance project topics and materials 1
Bio Chemistry 14
Building Technology 6
Business Administration and Management 179
Business Education project topics and materials 7
Chemical Engineering 18
Chemistry Education project topics and materials 1
Christian Religious Studies Education project topics and materials 2
Civil Engineering 11
Commercial and Property Law project topics and materials 1
Computer Engineering 26
Computer Science 26
Crop Science project topics and materials 4
Curriculum and Instruction Project topics and materials 42
Economics 97
Education 115
Educational Administration and planning project topics and materials 39
Educational Foundations project topics and materials 15
Educational Psychology 7
Electrical Electronics Engineering 23
English 9
English Education project topics and materials 1
English Language Education project topics and materials 2
Estate Management 5
Fine and Applied Arts Creative Arts project topics and materials 1
Fine And Applied Arts project topics and materials 1
French Education project topics and materials 5
Geology and Mining 2
Guidance and Counselling project topics and materials 1
Handouts 2
Hausa Education project topics and materials 1
Health Education project topics and materials 9
History and International Studies project topics and materials 3
Home Economics Project topics and materials 19
Industrial Chemistry 3
Industrial Relations and Personnel Management 7
Islamic Studies Education project topics and materials 15
JAMB WAEC NECO NABTEB SSCE NCE ND HND BSC MSC PGD 1
Law 3
Library and Information Science Education project topics and materials 41
Library Science 2
Local Government and Development Studies project topics and materials 13
Marketing 10
Mass Communication 39
Measurement And Evaluation 1
Micro Biology 8
Office Technology and Management 7
Physical and Health Education project topics and materials 18
Physics 1
Political Science 18
Public Administration 122
Science Education project topics and materials 5
Science Laboratory Technology 10
Social Studies Education project topics and materials 6
Sociology 11
Soil Science project topics and materials 1
SPORTS MANAGEMENT 3
Statistics 85
Survey 93
Teaching English As A Second Language 7
Technical Education project topics and materials 1
Theatre Art and Film Studies project topics and materials 3
Theatre Arts project topics and materials 3
Tourism 8
Urban and Regional Planning 1
Veterinary Medicine Project topics and materials 1
Vocational And Technical Education project topics and materials 15
Advert.

Advertise On TCI Library

Advert.
Advert.

Recent Comments

 Charissa Burn on Register for Npower - Information needed for registration and procedures
Your All In One Solution For Creating All The Content You'll Ever Need. Proprietary AI Turns YouTube Videos Into Traffic Getting Articles At The Press Of A Button! We’ve Been Getting Free Autopilot Traffic From Google Without SEO Experience For Ov...
 Emmanuel Ayeh on Check out the UNESCO Fellowship 2020 in Poland | Fully-Funded
Thanks for sharing this info, Admin....
Advert.

Project Categories

Business Plan Categories

Pages

Advert.