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You are here ❯ Home ❯ Projects ❯ ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF IMPROVED CEREALSEEDS AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA

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ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF IMPROVED CEREALSEEDS AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN SABON GARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA

 

 

 

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 May 18, 2022 |  07:52 pm |  154




Project topics and materials on ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF IMPROVED CEREALSEEDS AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN SABON GARI LOCAL  GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA 

CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 


1.1 Background of the Study 
Improved seed accelerates the achievement of food security as witnessed in developed countries like China and India (National Agricultural Seed Council, 2010).  Availability of superior crop varieties (maize, sorghum and rice) with high potential yield qualities will go a long way in increasing the productivity of crop per unit area put under cultivation. Seed being the primary input in food crop production is often not paid the adequate attention it required as the key to a sustainable agricultural production.  Improved seed varieties at affordable prices are a critical requirement for an enhanced agricultural development. It is a strategic input of change from low to very high agricultural productivities (Joshua and Omidiji 1999).  

 
The efficacy of other inputs such as fertilizer, pesticide and credit is dependent on the use of high quality seed (FAO, 2002). It is the catalyst and a veritable tool in increasing farm income, wealth creation and employment generation for vast majority of Nigerian rural populace (Kormawa et al., 2002). The uptake of these improved seeds by farmers is the bedrock for achieving food security and industrial development (Shobowale, 2008). This is in accordance with the view of Omaliko (2000) who indicated that “the main issue in food security is that of improved quality seed”. He further mentioned that one of the contributing factors to food insecurity include deficiencies in supply and delivery of farm input such as seed and the farmers inequitable distribution of working capital to secure good quality seed for farming purpose. However, Usman (1994), noted that no country or society can develop a market-oriented agriculture without an efficient seed supply system properly put in place. It is for this reason that the Nigerian government has set up the formal seed system which is responsible for improving the quality and quantity of improved seed available to farmers at the right place, time and at affordable price (Usman,1994). 

 
Though agriculture is the most important economic sector in Nigeria contributing about 41% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and providing employment to about 80% of the rural population, agricultural production in Nigeria still depends mostly on small scale farmers who are often characterized by the use of traditional practice (Damisa and Yohanna, 2006). One of the major problems of low agricultural productivity encountered by most farmers in the sub-Sudan African countries has been the use of low yielding seeds and insufficient awareness of the economic benefits of improved and high yielding seed. According to Tripp (2001), 60-70% of seed used by rural small holders is saved on farm and the remaining 30-40% is borrowed or purchased locally.  

 
Adoption of improved seed is regarded as a decision to make full use of an innovation or technology (Rogers, 1995).  An innovation is an idea, method, object or practice, which is regarded, as new by individuals but which may not always be the result of recent research.    Also, Ewuola (1985), notes that adoption is synonymous to transfer of technology.  He defines transfer of technology as that which embraces all efforts to make sure that the farmers adopt new technology.  Before any technology is adopted, it must pass through a process of adoption, which involved awareness stage (when an individuals first heard about improved practice/innovation): the interest stage (an individual start having interest in the new practice, hence gathering more information about it); evaluation stage  (an individuals start judgement, normally on small scale) and adoption stage ( an individual decide to continue the full  use of the new practice (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971).  The process of making a decision is not an instantaneous one but rather occurs over a period of time and does not always follow the sequence in practice.  
 
Given the critical role and the ability rural small holders have, to transform agricultural sector, the major task is how to facilitate the improvement of seed system in Nigeria that is capable of generating, producing and distributing new seed varieties that meet the seed needs of a wide spectrum of farmers in a cost effective way. 
 
The need for use of improved package seeds by small rural farmers in Nigeria can be traced to the mandate of the National Agricultural Seed Council (NASC), whose role is the production and regulation of the seed industry in Nigeria.  
 
 
1.2 Problem Statement 
Over 85% of the domestic food production in Nigeria is in the hands of small scale farmers (Soludo, 2007). The farmers get limited returns from their farm produce in spite of the much effort they exert to increase their income (Olayemi, 1991). The income of these farmers is so small that investment in agriculture through the purchase of farm inputs for increased production is highly insignificant (Nafziger, 1994).  
 
Most farmers in developing countries and Nigeria in particular rely heavily on informal channels for access to seeds these include on farm seed saving, farmer to farmer exchanges and unregulated sale outlets.  According to Adeolu, (1991) the task of agricultural development cannot be achieved by relying heavily on informal channels for access to seed.  Omidiji (2008) reported that one of the challenges to National Seed 
System is that many farmers about 80-90% still use farmer-saved seeds.  In an effort to reverse this trend, the Federal Government of Nigeria through its provision of legal backing, established the National Agricultural Seed Council (NASC) with the mandate for production, promotion, regulation and control of independent seed industry.  The national seed policy that is backed up by the National Agricultural Seed Act No 72 of 1992 also emphasizes the seed industry development programme and promotion of communities seed programme for provision of adequate and good quality seed to local farmers. Given the critical role improved seeds(maize, sorghum and rice) play in food production and its role in agricultural development, there seems to be a missing link in the awareness and usage of these improved seeds(maize, sorghum and rice)in Sabon Gari Local Government Area. The need to examine the factors influencing the adoption of improved seeds by farmers in this area becomes imperative. Thus, this study intends to address the following research questions:  
i. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the rural farmers in Sabon Gari 
Local Government Area? 
 
ii. What is the level of awareness of improved seed among the rural farmers in 
Sabon Gari Local government Area? 
 
iii. What are the sources of information on improved seeds available for farmers? 
iv. What are the common sources of seed supply to the farmers in the study area? 
 
v. What are the socio-economic and Institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved seeds by rural farmers? 
 
vi. What are the constraints associated with the adoption of improved seed by farmers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area.? 
1.3 Objectives of the Study 
The broad objective of this study is to analyze the factors that influence the adoption of improved seeds among rural farmers in Sabon Gari, Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. 
 
The specific objectives of the study are to: 
i. describe the socio-economic characteristics of rural farmers in the study area, 
 
ii. assess the level of awareness of improved seeds among the rural farmers in the study area, 
 
iii. identify source(s) of information on improved seeds available for the farmers, 
 
iv. assess the common sources of seeds supply for the farmer in the study area, 
 
v. determine the socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved seed by rural farmers in Sabon Gari Local government Area and 
 
vi. identify constraints associated with the adoption of improved seed by the rural farmers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area. 
 
1.4 Justification  
Food security is of particular concern to all who are interested in the welfare of the millions of people living in the developing countries, including Nigeria (Charlotte, 2004). Thus, seed is a very important input in agricultural production.  The availability of quality seed of improved varieties and the usage by all crop farmers nationwide irrespective of scale will go a long way in increasing productivity and producing enough food for the nation’s growing population (Omidiji, 2008).  In view of the above, it is therefore hoped that this study will add to available information about the value of improved seed.  It is also hoped that this research will benefit extension workers and rural farmers, in strengthening their capacities to promote the adoption of improved seed varieties toward improving agricultural production and livelihood of farmers.  
 



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