TAPHIRE A WRITERSUBMIT ASSIGNMENT FAQ Testimonies Latest Post Sign Up Login

You can earn #120,000 Naira Monthly from Home with Expertnaire Affiliate , wheather you are a student, unemployed or looking for WORK FROM HOME opportunity.

Learn More. 

You are here ❯ Home ❯ Projects ❯ UTILIZATION OF SOYMILK AS MILK REPLACER IN FEEDING FRIESIAN X BUNAJI CALVES

Business Plan Categories

agriculture 3

UTILIZATION OF SOYMILK AS MILK REPLACER IN FEEDING FRIESIAN X BUNAJI CALVES

 

 

 

 Format: Ms Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 148   Attributes: Downloadable

 Amount: 3,000

 Jun 07, 2022 |  05:50 pm |  118



project topic and material on UTILIZATION OF SOYMILK AS MILK REPLACER IN FEEDING FRIESIAN X BUNAJI CALVES


CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION

 
Calves are the future producers of cow milk for human consumption, but depend solely on milk for their nutritional needs at the early stage of life. Milk is a unique food for calves and supplies a lot of nutrients essential for growth and organ development (Ghorbani et al., 2007). Post-natal feeding of dairy calves is very important for better health and growth especially in commercial as well as smallholder dairy farms (Khan et al., 2012). However, the indigenous breeds of cattle in Nigeria are naturally poor milk producers, as they do not produce enough milk for optimum sustainability of their calves talk less of having surplus for human consumption. This results in underfeeding or starvation of calves with a consequence of stunted growth and mortality. Shortage of nutrients especially during the early stages of life in calves reflects later in their whole life in terms of productive and reproductive performances (Roy et al., 2016). If suitable substitutes for milk are made available, the nutrition of infant pre-ruminants can be improved and survivability can be increased (Khan et al., 2012). The benefits of improved nutritional status of calves in the first 2 – 3 months of life may include reaching maturity age sooner, improved ability to withstand infectious challenges and increased subsequent milk production (Drackley, 1999).  

Milk replacers (MR) are very good sources of liquid feed for calves (Roy et al., 2016). Khan et al. (2012) defined milk replacers as those feed ingredients or a mixture of such ingredients that can be used as substitute for whole milk in the diets of calves. They are made from by-products of milk with the addition of some other ingredients in such a way that the final product is comparable to whole milk. A typical MR comprises of skim milk powder, whey powder and vegetable oils. Crude protein content is usually 20%, and the fat content typically ranges from 15 to 22% (DM basis) (Mete et al.,2000).  
In developed countries, alternatives to whole milk feeding to pre-ruminants are formulated using by-products of milk processing industry (Oliveira et al., 2015). Such practice is not feasible in a developing country like Nigeria where the demand for milk and milk products in human nutrition is constantly increasing as a result of the rapid increase in human population (ATA, 2013). The aim of using milk replacer is to cut down the cost of whole milk in calf rearing programme and to improve their performance (Mete et al.,2000). There are many types of low cost, high quality plant protein viz, soyflour, soymilk, soy protein concentrate and wheat protein which could be used in the formulation of milk replacers (Ghorbani et al., 2007). However, Roy et al. (2016) showed that soy protein is widely used in milk replacer formulations because of its high-quality protein content. Soybean contains up to 40% crude protein compared with 1.0 to 5.6% protein content of most animal milk
(Ghorbani et al., 2007) and has an acceptable amino acid profile (Gernah et al., 2013). Soymilk not only provides protein but is also a good source of carbohydrate, fat, vitamins and minerals (Nitsan et al., 2005).  

Soymilk, a novel milk replacer has been used for artificial rearing of young animals (Ghorbani et al., 2007). Few studies indicated that feeding soymilk as milk replacer to calves resulted to increased growth performance when compared to whole milk feeding (Bartlett et al., 2006; Ghorbani et al., 2007; Masum et al., 2009; Roy et al., 2016). Despite soybean‟s pivotal role in animal nutrition, it cannot be fed unprocessed because there are some anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) which limits its utilization. These ANFs include: protease inhibitors, tannins, phytates, oxalates, saponins, etc. Fortunately, the levels of these ANFs can be eliminated or reduced through soaking, cooking, sprouting, fermentation, toasting, etc (Soetan and Oyewole, 2009). In additon, soaking could reduce ANFs such as protease enzyme inhibitor, phytates, etc due to their partial or total solubilization and removal with the discarded solution (Prodanov et al., 2004). However, in calves with completely functioning rumens, ANFs and complex proteins are not as detrimental, and thus processing is not as crucial (Liener, 1994).
 
1.1     Justification of the Study


Milk replacer is an ideal liquid feed for pre-ruminants. Commercial milk replacers are scarce and expensive because they are mostly imported. Soybean is readily available, less expensive and can be cultivated locally. Soybean has potential for use as milk replacer formulations because of its high nutritive value. Soybean is a good source of high quality, relatively inexpensive protein. Soybean protein is often used in calf milk replacers and starters instead of milk proteins because of its low cost and its essential amino acid content which is similar to cow‟s milk. Soymilk is cheaper than cow milk therefore, successful replacement of cow milk with soymilk may reduce feed cost. However, to ensure proper growth and health of the calf, processing and subsequent solubility of the protein source are crucially important for determining the suitability of alternative proteins in milk replacers. Soaking as a processing method could be employed to improve the feeding value of soymilk. Successful replacement of cow milk with processed soymilk could also improve the nutrition and survivability of calves. The technology can easily be adopted by farmers to enhance the survival of the calves and have excess milk for sale. The use of soymilk as an alternative protein source in milk replacers is therefore a very vital area to explore in calf nutritional research.
 
1.2     Objectives of the Study


The broad objective of the study was to investigate the potentials of using soymilk as a replacement for cow milk in the diets of dairy calves. While the specific objectives were to evaluate:
1.    The effect of soaking duration on the nutritional and antinutritional composition of soybean (milk quality of soybean).
2.    The performance of Friesian x Bunaji calves fed different ratios of soymilk and cow milk.
3.    The economic advantage of feeding different ratios of soy:cow milk in Friesian x Bunaji calves.


1.3     Research Questions


This study was carried out on the following research questions:

Research Question 1: Does soaking duration have any effect on nutritional and anti- nutritional contents of soybean?

Research Question 2: Does feeding different ratios of soy:cow milk have any effect on performance of Friesian x Bunaji calves?

Research Question 3: Does feeding different ratios of soy:cow milk have any economic advantage?












This Project Topic and Material is Complete Chapter One to Five

Purchase this Material Now

Recommended



×

Download research materials from TCI Library

Business Plan Writing


Let us write your complete business plan. Comprehensive plan you can use for loan and grant application or get our sample plan for just N 10,000 only. If your plan is not in our database please contact us @ sales@tcilibrary.com or Call 08102930395 and we will update it. A bankable business plan for your dream business with the features: 

  1. Executive Summary
  2. Introduction
  3. Products & Services 
  4. Industry and Market Analysis
  5. Competition 
  6. SWOT analysis 
  7. Operational plan
  8. Marketing plans
  9. Financial Plan

 

Advert.

Quick Material Download

Advert.

Project Research Categories

books 2
BSc-HND 710
MSc 791

Project Departments

Accountancy 165
Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering 19
Agricultural Economics project topics and materials 37
Agricultural Engineering Technology project topics and materials 7
Agricultural Extension project topics and materials 6
Agricultural Science Education project topics and materials 1
Animal Science project topics and materials 14
Arabic and Islamic Studies project topics and materials 1
Architecture 3
Banking and Finance 10
Banking and Finance project topics and materials 1
Bio Chemistry 14
Building Technology 6
Business Administration and Management 179
Business Education project topics and materials 7
Chemical Engineering 18
Chemistry Education project topics and materials 1
Christian Religious Studies Education project topics and materials 2
Civil Engineering 11
Commercial and Property Law project topics and materials 1
Computer Engineering 26
Computer Science 26
Crop Science project topics and materials 4
Curriculum and Instruction Project topics and materials 42
Economics 97
Education 115
Educational Administration and planning project topics and materials 39
Educational Foundations project topics and materials 15
Educational Psychology 7
Electrical Electronics Engineering 23
English 9
English Education project topics and materials 1
English Language Education project topics and materials 2
Estate Management 5
Fine and Applied Arts Creative Arts project topics and materials 1
Fine And Applied Arts project topics and materials 1
French Education project topics and materials 5
Geology and Mining 2
Guidance and Counselling project topics and materials 1
Handouts 2
Hausa Education project topics and materials 1
Health Education project topics and materials 9
History and International Studies project topics and materials 3
Home Economics Project topics and materials 19
Industrial Chemistry 3
Industrial Relations and Personnel Management 7
Islamic Studies Education project topics and materials 15
JAMB WAEC NECO NABTEB SSCE NCE ND HND BSC MSC PGD 1
Law 3
Library and Information Science Education project topics and materials 41
Library Science 2
Local Government and Development Studies project topics and materials 13
Marketing 10
Mass Communication 39
Measurement And Evaluation 1
Micro Biology 8
Office Technology and Management 7
Physical and Health Education project topics and materials 18
Physics 1
Political Science 18
Public Administration 122
Science Education project topics and materials 5
Science Laboratory Technology 10
Social Studies Education project topics and materials 6
Sociology 11
Soil Science project topics and materials 1
SPORTS MANAGEMENT 3
Statistics 85
Survey 93
Teaching English As A Second Language 7
Technical Education project topics and materials 1
Theatre Art and Film Studies project topics and materials 3
Theatre Arts project topics and materials 3
Tourism 8
Urban and Regional Planning 1
Veterinary Medicine Project topics and materials 1
Vocational And Technical Education project topics and materials 15

Project Departments

Accountancy 165
Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering 19
Agricultural Economics project topics and materials 37
Agricultural Engineering Technology project topics and materials 7
Agricultural Extension project topics and materials 6
Agricultural Science Education project topics and materials 1
Animal Science project topics and materials 14
Arabic and Islamic Studies project topics and materials 1
Architecture 3
Banking and Finance 10
Banking and Finance project topics and materials 1
Bio Chemistry 14
Building Technology 6
Business Administration and Management 179
Business Education project topics and materials 7
Chemical Engineering 18
Chemistry Education project topics and materials 1
Christian Religious Studies Education project topics and materials 2
Civil Engineering 11
Commercial and Property Law project topics and materials 1
Computer Engineering 26
Computer Science 26
Crop Science project topics and materials 4
Curriculum and Instruction Project topics and materials 42
Economics 97
Education 115
Educational Administration and planning project topics and materials 39
Educational Foundations project topics and materials 15
Educational Psychology 7
Electrical Electronics Engineering 23
English 9
English Education project topics and materials 1
English Language Education project topics and materials 2
Estate Management 5
Fine and Applied Arts Creative Arts project topics and materials 1
Fine And Applied Arts project topics and materials 1
French Education project topics and materials 5
Geology and Mining 2
Guidance and Counselling project topics and materials 1
Handouts 2
Hausa Education project topics and materials 1
Health Education project topics and materials 9
History and International Studies project topics and materials 3
Home Economics Project topics and materials 19
Industrial Chemistry 3
Industrial Relations and Personnel Management 7
Islamic Studies Education project topics and materials 15
JAMB WAEC NECO NABTEB SSCE NCE ND HND BSC MSC PGD 1
Law 3
Library and Information Science Education project topics and materials 41
Library Science 2
Local Government and Development Studies project topics and materials 13
Marketing 10
Mass Communication 39
Measurement And Evaluation 1
Micro Biology 8
Office Technology and Management 7
Physical and Health Education project topics and materials 18
Physics 1
Political Science 18
Public Administration 122
Science Education project topics and materials 5
Science Laboratory Technology 10
Social Studies Education project topics and materials 6
Sociology 11
Soil Science project topics and materials 1
SPORTS MANAGEMENT 3
Statistics 85
Survey 93
Teaching English As A Second Language 7
Technical Education project topics and materials 1
Theatre Art and Film Studies project topics and materials 3
Theatre Arts project topics and materials 3
Tourism 8
Urban and Regional Planning 1
Veterinary Medicine Project topics and materials 1
Vocational And Technical Education project topics and materials 15
Advert.

Advertise On TCI Library

Advert.
Advert.

Recent Comments

 Charissa Burn on Register for Npower - Information needed for registration and procedures
Your All In One Solution For Creating All The Content You'll Ever Need. Proprietary AI Turns YouTube Videos Into Traffic Getting Articles At The Press Of A Button! We’ve Been Getting Free Autopilot Traffic From Google Without SEO Experience For Ov...
 Emmanuel Ayeh on Check out the UNESCO Fellowship 2020 in Poland | Fully-Funded
Thanks for sharing this info, Admin....
Advert.

Project Categories

Business Plan Categories

Pages

Advert.