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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANDANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDIES ON THEHEXANE EXTRACT OF THE STEM BARK OFSTEGANOTAENIA ARALIACEAHOSCHTS (APIACEAE)

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-6

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 Sep 21, 2022 |  09:29 pm |  14


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDIES ON THEHEXANE EXTRACT OF THE STEM BARK OFSTEGANOTAENIA ARALIACEAHOSCHTS (APIACEAE)

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Medicinal  preparations  derived  from  natural  sources,  especially  from  plants,  have  been  in widespread use since time immemorial. Ancient texts of India and China contain exhaustive depictions of the use of a variety of plant-derived medications (Samuelsson, 2004).


In fact, plants remain  the  main  source  of  medicines  for  a  large  proportion  of  the  world‟s  population, particularly in the developing world, despite the advent of the pharmaceutical chemistry during the early twentieth century, 


which brought with it the ability to synthesize an enormous variety of medicinal drug molecules and allowed the treatment  of previously incurable and/or life- threatening diseases(Ahmad et al., 2006).


Over the years, however, synthetic drugs have been plagued by unwanted side-effects, toxicity, and inefficiency, among other problems. In addition, the search for new drugs against a variety of illnesses through chemical synthesis and other modern approaches has not been encouraging. 


These factors, as well as the emergence of new infectious diseases, the proliferation of disorders such as cancer, and growing multidrug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms, have prompted renewed interest in the discovery of potential drug molecules from medicinal plants. (Ahmad et al., 2006)



1.1 Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy

The term pharmacognosy was first used between 1811 and 1815, and originally referred to “materia medica”. The knowledge of drug materials or pharmacology. 


It is derived from two words , pharmakon (a drug) and gignosko (to acquire a knowledge of ) (Evans, 2002). Later on, pharmacognosy  became  restricted  to  that  branch  of  pharmacy  investigating  “medicinal substances from the plant, animal and minerals in their natural, crude, or unprepared state, or in the  form  of  such  primary  derivatives  as  oils,  waxes,  gums,  and  resins”  (Hocking,  1997).


Although this latter definition may have been appropriate for the descriptive and microscopical applications of pharmacognosy which were developed from the 19th century until the middle of 20th century (Pratt and Youngken 1956; Wallis 1967), 


it became necessary for the subject to be redefined as it subsequently broadened in scope to deal with the chemical components of crude drugs. For example, pharmacognosy was stated to be “an applied science that deals with the biologic, biochemical, and economic features of natural drugs and their constituents” (Tyleret al., 1998).


In further attempt to update the scope of this field in amanner consistent with scientific activities ongoing at the beginning of the 21st  century, pharmacognosy has been recently defined as “a molecular science that explores naturally occurring structure-activity relationships with a drug potential” (Bruhn and Bohlin, 1997).


As practiced today, pharmacognosy involves the broad study of natural products from various sources including plants, bacteria, fungi, and marine organisms (Balunas and Kinghorn, 2005). 


Pharmacognosy includes both the study of botanical dietary supplements, including herbal remedies as well as the search for single compound drug leads  that  may  proceed  through  further  development  into  Food  and  Drug  Administration- approved medicines (Tyler, 1999; Cardellina II, 2002).


1.2 Taxonomy of Medicinal Plants

Medicinal plants have diverse botanical characteristics. They belong to various plant families which, frequently, comprise characteristic similar active ingredients (as a result of similarities in the biosynthetic pathways). 


As an example, the plant-family Labiateae (Lamiaceae) comprise a large number of essential oil-containing species (lavender, thyme, rosemary, sage, etc) whereas other plant families, like the Solanaceae are characterized by the occurrence of several alkaloid- containing species (Belladona, thorn apple, tobacco, etc.) (Bradley and Michael, 2008)


Phylogenetic  systems  classify  medicinal  plants  according  to  their  purported  evolutionary relationships or heredity characteristics, although remarkably even to date, phylogenic systems are  to  a  large  extent  based  on  the  former  artificial  system  of  Linneaus.  


More  refined morphological systems take into consideration the morphological traits of plants and evaluate them according to the principles of evolution and inheritance (Bradley and Michael, 2008).In recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to the use of plant-derived chemical information giving rise to chemo-taxonomy or phytochemical plant systems. 


Similar to other domains of plant systematic, the recent trends to use cytological and molecular biological traits are expected to bring about changes in the already established phylogenetic systems (Bradley and Michael, 2008).


1.3 Chemistry and Biological Activity of Plant Extracts

Amedicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be  used  for  therapeutic  purposes,  or which  are  precursors  for  chemo-pharmaceutical  semi- synthesis (WHO, 2011). 

Such a plant will have its parts including leaves, roots, rhizomes, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, grains or seeds, employed in the control or treatment of a disease condition and therefore contains chemical components that are medically activeThese non-nutrient plant chemical compounds or bioactive components are often referred to as phytochemicals („phyto-„ from Greek - phyto meaning „plant‟) or phytoconstituents and are responsible for protecting the





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