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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIVENOM EVALUATIONS OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF CLERODENDRUM CAPITATUM (WILLD) SCHUM. AND THONN. (VERBENACEAE)

 Format: ms word   Chapters: 1-6

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 Sep 22, 2022 |  03:32 pm |  8


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIVENOM EVALUATIONS OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF CLERODENDRUM CAPITATUM (WILLD) SCHUM. AND THONN. (VERBENACEAE)


1.0 INTRODUCTION

Plants are indispensable to the existence of man. The important necessities of life – food, clothing, shelter and a hosts of others are supplied by the plant kingdom.  The biotic and a biotic elements of nature are all interdependent. It has provided a complete store – house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. The knowledge of drugs has accumulated over thousands of years as a result of man’s inquisitive nature so that today we possess many effective means of ensuring health care (Kokate et al., 2008).


In  the  19th  century,   microscopy  was   introduced   for  the  quality  control  of pharmaceutical  preparations  from  plants.  However,  for  too  many  years  pharmacognosy remained with these methods, and with the rapidly decreasing number of herbal preparations in the pharmacy, the discipline had great difficulties in holding their prominent position in the pharmaceutical  curriculum  in  the  sixties  and  seventies.   Fortunately,   some  visionary pharmacognosists were able to open up new directions (Kokate et al., 2008).


The development of thin layer chromatography by the well known pharmacognosist Professor Egon Stahl is probably the best example. Also in the field of gas chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography, pharmacognosists were among the pioneers in the analysis  of  plant   materials.   For  studies  of  the   active  compounds   in  plants,  these chromatographic   methods   became   important   tools.   


Moreover,   in   the   seventies,   the spectrometric   methods   such   as   MS   and   NMR   became   common place   for   the pharmacognosists in their search for new biologically active compounds in plants. 


But in that period developing new drugs from plants was not as easy as with synthetic drugs, as the pharmacological  test  systems,  mainly  in  vivo  animal  experiments and  in-vitro  isolated organs, are not  suited for bioassay-guided  fractionation of active compounds from plant extracts (Verporte, 1998).

 


 

1.1

 

Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy


Pharmacognosy  may  be  defined  as  a  branch  of  bioscience  which  treats  in  detail medicinal and related products of crude or primary type obtained from plant, animal and mineral origins (Kokate et al., 2008). 


In short, it is the study of crude drug obtained from plants, animals and mineral kingdom and their constituents (Shah and Seth, 2010). It is an objective study of crude drugs from natural  sources treated scientifically and it encompasses the knowledge of the history, distribution, cultivation, collection, processing for market and preservation, the study of sensory, physical, chemical and structural characters and it uses. 


It also includes the study of other materials used in pharmacy such as suspending, disintegrating and flavouring agents etc. In the 19th  century, the term “materia medica” was used for the subject. It was in 1815 that the word “pharmacognosy” was coined by a German Scientist called Seydler in his book titled "Analecta Pharmacognostica." by combining two Greek words “Pharmakon” – (Drug)  and “Gignosco”- (To acquire knowledge of).  Though, recent historical research has  found an earlier  usage  of the term by a physician,  J.A Schmidt (Vienna) in his Lehrbuch der material medica in 1811 where he used it to describe the study of medicinal plants and their properties. 


Pharmacognosy has played a fundamental role in the development of different discipline of science. A pharmacognosist should posses a sound knowledge of the terms used to describe the vegetable and animal drugs as covered under botany  and  zoology  respectively.  


In  addition,  the  knowledge  of  plant  taxonomy,  plant breeding, plant pathology and plant genetics is helpful in the development of cultivation technology for medicinal and aromatic plants (Shah and Seth, 2010). Plant chemistry (phytochemistry) has undergone significant development in recent years as a distinct discipline. The knowledge of chemotaxonomy, biogenetic pathways for the formation of medicinally active primary and secondary metabolite, plant tissue culture and other related fields is essential for the complete understanding of pharmacognosy (Kokate et al., 2008). 


Pharmacognosy is  an essential  link  between pharmacology,  medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics and basic sciences. It is in a nutshell the road and rail network on which depend evolution of novel medicine.

 


 

1.2

Importance of Plants in Pharmacognosy

Plants have been an important source of medicines since the beginning of human life on  earth.   There   is   a  growing  demand   for   plant-based   medicines,   health  products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. People of all ages in both developing and developed countries use plants in an attempt to cure various diseases and to get relief from physical sufferings. Natural products are a source for bioactive compounds and have potential for developing some novel therapeutic agents (Kokate et al., 2008).


Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide  variety of chemical compounds that perform important  biological  functions,  as  defence  substances against  predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. Many of these chemicals have bene



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