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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIFUNGAL STUDIES OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF TAPINANTHUS GLOBIFERUS (A.Rich) Tiegh GROWING ON VITEX DONIANA

 Format: ms word   Chapters: 1-6

 Pages: 1-113   Attributes: downloadable

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 22, 2022 |  04:44 pm |  8


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIFUNGAL STUDIES OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF TAPINANTHUS GLOBIFERUS (A.Rich) Tiegh GROWING ON VITEX DONIANA

1.1 Natural Products

Over the years, natural products have contributed in providing humanity with the means of cure and prevention of diseases. Natural products discovered so far have played a vital role in improving the human health and have been the drugs of choice with their most striking feature being their structural diversity that is still largely untapped (Ciddi, 2012).


Natural product are the most successful source of potential drugleads (Haefner, 2003; Butler, 2004; Cragg and Newman, 2005; Mishra and Tiwari, 2011; Rey-ladino et al.,2011). The plant-derived drug used directly or as precursor includes Morphine (I),the first commercial pure natural product introduced for therapeutic use marketed by Merck in 1826 was obtained from  Papaver  somniferum.Quinine  (II),  an antimalarial  agent  isolated  from the  bark  of Cinchona  succirubra tree,  a  potent  antimalarial  drug  named  Artemisinin  (III)  was  also isolated from plant Artemisia annua as a remedy against the multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium spp.


The first semi-synthetic pure drug aspirin (IV) was introduced by Bayer in 1899 based on a natural product  salicin isolated from Salix alba. Other semisynthetic compounds such as artemether dihydroartemisinin, chloroquine, 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinoline were synthesized with a view to optimizing the pharmacokinetic principal of the molecules as potent antimalarial agents in widespread use across the world.


 

1.2 Traditional Medicine

The medicinalplant has been the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities (Haile and Delenasaw, 2007). 


Traditional  medicine  is  a  health  practices,  knowledge  and  beliefs  incorporating  plants, animals and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercise, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well- being (NNMDA, 2008; WHO 2005). Farnsworth et al. (1991) reported that about 80 percent of people world-wide still rely on plant-based traditional medicines for some aspect of their primary health care. This has been attributed to their affordability and accessibility.


 

The knowledge associated with traditional medicine has promoted further investigations of medicinal plants as potential source of medicines, and has led to the isolation of many chemical  compoundswhich  have  become  well  known  pharmaceuticals.  Many  modern pharmaceuticals  have  been  modeled  on  or  derived  from chemicals  found  in  plants.  


An example is the heart medication digoxin (V) derived from foxglove (Digtialis purpurea), Paclitaxel (Taxol®) (VI) a drug used for breast cancer was isolated from the bark of Taxus brevifolia (Pacific Yew) (Cragg, 1998). Taxol® is present in limited quantities from natural sources, its synthesis (though challenging and expensive) has been achieved (Cragg, 1998).









































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