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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT STUDIES ON METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE ROOTBARK OFUVARIA CHAMAEP. BEAUV. (ANNONACEAE)

 Format: ms word   Chapters: 1-6

 Pages: 1-74   Attributes: downloadable

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 22, 2022 |  04:52 pm |  9


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT STUDIES ON METHANOL EXTRACT OF THE ROOTBARK OFUVARIA CHAMAEP. BEAUV. (ANNONACEAE)


1.1 Natural product

Natural products have been and still are an inexhaustible source of drugs. The medicinal properties of plants predate human history and are the basis of much of modern medicine. 


Traditional medicine has been defined as the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness (WHO, 2013). For many years, traditional medicine has proven to be effective in healthcare, disease management  and  prevention  (Philipson, 2001).


The  use of  traditional medicine is not limited to developing countries.  Statistically, 70% of  medical doctors in France and Germany regularly prescribe traditional medicine (Murray and Pizorno, 2000). Examples of drugs used in orthodox medicines that are derived from plants are: 


(i) Quinine: obtained from Cinchona officinalis bark, an antimalarial which lead to the synthesis of 8- amino and 4-amino quinoline antimalarial; (ii) Artemisinin: from Artemisia annua served as a lead for the synthesis of (iii) artemether, (iv) arteether, and (v) artesunate as antimalarials; (vi) Morphine: a nacortic analgesic from Papaver somniferum served as a lead compound to the synthesis of naloxone and buprenophine; 


(vii) Cocaine:  from Erythroxylon coca leaves served as a lead for more potent and less toxic local anaesthetics such as procaine and lidocaine; (viii) Digoxin:  from foxglove (Digitalis purpurea, D. lanata) is still the best drug for the treatment of myocardial dysfunction; there is yet no synthetic drug capable of replacing the constituents of Digitalis (Olaniyi, 1989). 


The use of herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular. There are various reasons for this upsurge; these are safety, availability, ease of accessibility or convenience, and low cost as compared to conventional medicine (Winslow and Kroll, 1998).


Nevertheless, herbal medicine can be harmful. They are heterogeneous in composition and impose challenges to quality control, assurance and the regulatory processes. Some of them contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, corticosteroids and poisonous organic compounds in harmful amounts (Sanjoy and Yogeshwer, 2003). Thus the need to purify and isolate only the active components.


1.2 Artemisinin based analogues

Artemisinin (ii) is a sesquiterpinelactone isolated from the plant Artemisia annuaand its semi- synthetic derivatives are such as, artemether (iii), arteether (iv), artesunate (v) are group of drugs that possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against Plasmodium falciparum malaria (White, 1997). 


In some areas of South-East Asia, combinations of artemisinins (ii) and mefloquine (ix) offer the only reliable treatment for uncomplicated malaria, due to the development and prevalence of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria (White, 2004).

 




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