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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT STUDIES OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF HYMENOCARDIA ACIDA, TUL (EUPHORBIACEAE)

 Format: ms word   Chapters: 1-6

 Pages: 1-76   Attributes: downloadable

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 Sep 22, 2022 |  05:02 pm |  7


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT STUDIES OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF HYMENOCARDIA ACIDA, TUL (EUPHORBIACEAE)

1.1 Natural Product

Natural Productscan be defined as organic compounds and other chemicals synthesized by plants  through  metabolic  processes  aided  by  sunlight,  involving  CO2,  H2O  vapour  and chlorophyll. Generally, natural products are characterized by specific functions they perform in  plants  and  animals.  


Classical  natural  product  chemistry  methodologies  enabled  the discovery of a vast array of bioactive secondary metabolites from various source materials including  terrestrial  plants,  terrestrial  micro-organisms,  marine  organisms,  and  terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates (Tyler et al., 1988). 


Natural products have been used since ancient times and in folklore for the treatment and prevention of many diseases and illnesses. They are the most successful source of potential drugleads (Haefner, 2003; Butler, 2004; Cragg andNewman,2005; Mishra andTiwari, 2011;Rey-ladino et al., 2011).


Therefore, natural product continue to provide unique structural diversity in comparison to standard combinatorial chemistry, and presents opportunities for discovering mainly novel low molecular weight lead compounds. Since less than 10% of the world’s biodiversity has been evaluated for potential biological activity, many more useful natural lead compounds await discovery with the challenge being how to access this natural chemical diversity (Cragg andNewman,2005).


The earliest records of natural products were depicted on clay tablets in cuneiform from Mesopotamia (2600 B.C.) which documented oils from Cupressus sempervirens (Cypress) and  Commiphora  species  (myrrh) which are still  used today to  treat  coughs,  colds  and inflammation (Cragg andNewman,2005). 


The Ebers Papyrus (2900 B.C.) is an Egyptian pharmaceutical record, which documents over 700 plant-based drugs ranging from gargles, pills, infusions to ointments (Cragg andNewman,2005). The Chinese Materia Medica written sometimes around 1100 B.C. 


“Wu Shi Er Bing Fang” contains 52 prescriptions, Shennong Herbal (~100 B.C.) contain 365 drugs and the Tang Herbal (659 A.D) gave the records of 850   drugswhich   are   documented   records   of   the   uses   of   natural   products   (Cragg andNewman,2005).  


The Greek physician, Dioscorides, recorded the collection, storage and the uses of medicinal herbs, whilst the Greek philosopher and natural scientist, Theophrastus (~300 B.C.) dealt with medicinal herbs (Cragg andNewman,2005).


During the Dark and Middle Ages the monasteries in England, Ireland, France and Germany preserved this Western knowledge whilst the Arabs preserved the Greco-Roman knowledge and expanded the  uses  of their own  resources,  together with  Chinese  and  Indian  herbs unfamiliar to the Greco-Roman world (Cragg andNewman,2005).


It was the Arabs who were the first to privately own pharmacies in the 8th century with Avicenna, a Persian pharmacist, physician, philosopher and poet, contributing much to the sciences of pharmacy and medicine through works such as the Canon Medicinae (Cragg and Newman,2005).


1.2   Traditional Medicine

Traditional medicine refers to health practices, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plants, animals and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well- being  (WHO,  2005;  NNMDA,  2008). The  world  Health  organization  estimated  that  80 percent of people worldwide still rely on plant-based traditional medicines for some aspect of their primary health care (Farnsworth and Soejarto, 1985).


Medicinal plants are plants containing substances which can be used for medication or as precursor of drug synthesis (Sofowora, 1982). Medicinal plants can be referred to as: ‘all higher plants that have been alleged to have medicinal properties, i.e. effects that relate to health, or which have been proven to be useful as drugs by western standards, or which contain  constituents  that are  used  as  drugs’  (Farnsworth  and  Soejarto,  1991).  


The  term ‘medicinal’ as applied to a plant indicates that it contains a substance or substances which modulate beneficially the physiology of sick mammals, and that it has been used by man for that purpose (Fellows, 1991).  



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