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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI BACTERIAL STUDIES ON THE STEM BARK OF LANNEA BARTERI. (OLIV.) ENGL. (ANACARDIACEAE)

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 Sep 22, 2022 |  09:24 pm |  8


PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI BACTERIAL STUDIES ON THE STEM BARK OF LANNEA BARTERI. (OLIV.) ENGL. (ANACARDIACEAE)


1.1 Medicinal Plants

Medicinal plants have also been of importance in the health care system of local communities as the main source of medicine for the majority of the rural population. Plants have not only nutritional value but also, in the eyes of the local people, they have medicinal and ritual or magical values (Adewunmi et al., 2001). Plants have been a major source of medicine for human kind. According to available information, a total of at least 35000 plants species are widely used for medicinal purposes. The demand for traditional herbs is increasing very rapidly, mainly because of the harmful effects of synthetic chemical drugs. 


The global clamor for more herbal ingredients creates possibilities for the local cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops as well as for the regulated and sustainable harvest of wild plants. Such endeavors could help raise rural employment  in  the  developing  countries,  boost  commerce  around  the  world  and  perhaps contribute to  the  health of millions  (Anita, 2004).


Nigeria  is  endowed with  an  enormous diversity of animals and plants, both domesticated and wild, and an impressive variety of habitats and  ecosystems.  This  heritage  sustains  the  food,  medicinal,  clothing,  shelter,  spiritual, recreational,  and  other  needs  of  her  population  (Odugbemi  and  Akinsulire,  2006). This biodiversity also ensures the essential ecological functions on which life depends, including a steady supply of clean water, nutrient cycling, and soil maintainance. It is the treasure house from which future food needs, cures diseases, and elements for knowledge and technology will be found. 


Plants have provided the basis for traditional treatment for different types of diseases and still offer an enormous potential source of new chemotherapeutic agent (Adewunmi et al.,2001).  This  however  requires  extraction  of  the  bioactive  molecules  of  pharmacological importance present following purification and identification procedures as well as toxicological studies.Plants have long been used by man to maintain health and well-being (Kafaru, 1994). The healing power of plants date back to many years (Kafaru, 1994). 


In Nigeria, application of medicinal  plants  especially  in  traditional  medicine  is  currently  well-  acknowledged  and established  as  a  viable  profession  (Kafaru,  1994). Pharmacognosy  as  a  field  of  study  is concerned with description and identification of drugs both in the whole state and in powder. Such branch of pharmacognosy found importance, particularly for pharmacopoeial and quality control purposes (Evans, 1996). 


Plants have the major advantage of still being the most effective and cheaper alternative sources of drugs (Preto- rious and Watt, 2001). The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacological properties, is quite common in Asia, Latin America and Africa (Bibitha et al., 2002).


 

1.2 Medicinal Plants with Antibacterial Activities

There are reports of the use of medicinal plants against bacteria by different ethnic communities throughout the world. The use of herbs has always been the popular remedy against bacteria especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. These medicinal plants having antagonistic efficacy against bacteria have been evaluated pharmacologically and several active components  have  been  isolated.  


The  medicinal  plants  that  has  been  pharmacologically investigated using various models and parts of the plants include the following; Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Pimpinellaanisum, Sassafras albidum, Morindacitrifolia, Gaultheria procumbens, Zingiberofficinale Roscoe; occasionally Z. 


Capitatum,Siegesbeckia Orientalis   Linn.,   BerberistinctoriaLesch.   Justiciabetonica   Linn.(Sasikumar   et   al.,2006), Saturejabakhtiarica  (Ahanjan  et  al.,  2014).Anaphalis  margaritacea  (L.)  Benth  &  Hook.f., Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal, Apocynum androsaemifolium L.,   Arctostaphylosuva-ursi (L.) Spreng, Cornuscanadensis L., Rauvolfia serpentine, Tageteserecta,  Xanthium strumarium L. (Hassan et al., 2014).

 

 

1.3 Statement of Research Problem

Despite the existence of potent antibiotic and antifungal agents, resistant or multi-resistant strains are continuously appearing, imposing the need for a permanent search and development of new drugs (Silver, 1993). It is therefore very necessary that the search for newer antibiotic sources be a  continuous  process.  


The  prevalence  of  drug  resistant  bacteria  is  becoming  a  worldwide problem with implications for treatment of patients. Moreover, more effort should be made to seek  anti  microbial  agent  effective  against  pathogenic  micro  organism  resistant  to  current treatment (Turkoglu et al., 2006). 


According to various medical literature, several adverse drug resistant bacteria and fungal pathogens have complicated further the treatment of infectious diseases in immune compromised, AIDS and cancer patients (Diamond, 1991). Plants extracts like that of L. barteri showing target sites other than used by antibiotics will be active against drug resistant bacteria. However very little information is available on such activity of medicinal plants.


The frequency of life-threatening infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms has increased worldwide  and  is  becoming  an  important  cause  of  morbidity  and  mortality  in  immune compromised patients in developing countries (Al-Bari et al., 2006). The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria and the recent appearance of strains with reduced






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