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AN APPRAISAL OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENT IN LAFIA TOWN, NIGERIA.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-7

 Pages: 1-148   Attributes: DOWNLOADABLE

 Amount: 3,000

 Nov 09, 2022 |  05:03 pm |  21


AN APPRAISAL OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENT IN LAFIA TOWN, NIGERIA.



1.0 INTRODUCTION

Water in adequate quantity and suitable quality is a pre-requisite for maintaining urban life and economic activity, and it serves as the vehicle for drainage of wastes. Numerous activities are dependent on the availability of water supply. In particular, water supply is a critical factor in public health and economic development.


For any city, one of the basic and essential services is efficient water supply. Unless and until this demand is met, the health of the community and development activities will be negatively affected. When the organizational structure of any water supply agency does not promote efficient operation then the overall management will function poorly.


Management in this regards is the act of giving directions to water activities and channelling resources towards the  achievement of better and efficient water supply system.  Water supply management comprises of financial management and water demand management such as water pricing system, metering and tariff, financial and cost recovery of water supply, willingness to pay and ability to pay for the services and how various institutions will participate in management of water supply.


In developing countries, however, provision and management of water supply and sanitation systems  is  generally  poor,  resulting  in  interruptions in  the  services  and  sometimes  the complete collapse of systems, which could oblige users to resort to traditional water sources that may be contaminated. 


According to the WHO/UNICEF joint monitoring programme, between 1990 and 2004 urban population growth in Nigeria increased from 25 to 48% while at the same time, urban access to improved water sources actually declined during the same period from 80% to 67% coverage. The World Bank also reports that “some 25% of the urban population in Nigeria at least (50% of the urban population of Africa) are not connected to official networks and rely on alternative sources of water supply.


Urban water supply in Nigeria is deficient mainly due to inadequate data on operation and maintenance, insufficient and inefficient use of funds, lack of coordination among water agencies,  poor  management  of  water  supply  facilities,  inappropriate  system  design,  low profile  of  operation  and  maintenance,  inadequate  water  policy,  legal  framework and overlapping responsibilities, and political interference (O and M working Group, 2002).


The provision of adequate water for rural and urban population is the priority of national and state water supply policy and one of the targets of MDGs is to have access to quality water by the year 2015. But this policies will be a mere statement if the management of State water agencies have not been restructure based on current trend of PSP reforms.


The concerned to make these Water agencies work efficiently, the Federal Ministry of Water Resources had to source for loan from World Bank on behalf of the SWAs to rehabilitate water works under the National Water Rehabilitation Project (NWRP) rather than allowing the State Water Agencies to embark on construction of new ones which are very expensive. NWRP was aimed at developing the SWAs’ institutionally so that they can become efficient, autonomous and viable. The concerned also led to establishment of many policies by the FMWRRD on how to improve water supply, one of which is the National Policy on Water supply and Sanitation, 2000.


To have adequate water supply, there must be sustainability of water supply management which will involve: ensuring the continuous availability of sufficient quantities of water of sufficient quality, within adequate institutional frameworks; and applying sound management practices,  appropriate  technologies,  and  full-cost  accounting;  and  effectively maintaining facilities  and  equipment.  An  efficient  water  management  framework  is  necessary  for sustainable urban water supply system.



1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM


Since the creation of Nasarawa State in 1996, the management of public water supply in Lafia,  the  capital  city,  has  been  the  responsibility  of  the  Nasarawa  State  Water  Board (NSWB).  The  NSWB  has  water  supply  system  for  Lafia  town  with  a  capacity  of 11356.24m3/d (about 3 million gallons a day) which falls short of the current demand level of about 75,640.8m3/d. 


In addition, the existing system looses approximately 50 percent of its water, including “technical losses” (i.e. leakages) and “commercial losses” (i.e. unbilled and uncollected revenues and theft). The system itself has unreliable data on household water use and losses by households and other entities, and it has insufficient metering. Thus, bills are based on presumed consumption. These situations are not different from other State Water agencies in Nigeria (Greater Lafia master plan, 1998; Sauri Consultants, 2000 and ADB project appraisal, 2005).


As in most other countries, the State Water Corporations in Nigeria, with a mandate based on objectives of providing water as a social service while generating revenue to offset costs and run  a  sustainable  water  supply  have  records  of  poor  performance.  Balancing  this  dual mandate under an institutional and management framework in the public sector has been frequently a source of major problems that have characterized State Water Corporations and made them incapable of achieving any of those objectives effectively (Blunt, 1990; Blunt and Merrit, 1992). 


Problems like absence of clear institutional objectives, low wages and poor equipment and supplies, have been widely cited as the typical institutional characteristics of such water supply institutions in Nigeria (Ayoade, 1981; Falana, 1991, Yakubu, 1995) and other countries. 



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