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ADAPTATION OF HAM TRADITIONAL DESIGNS AS SOURCES OF MOTIFS FOR FABRIC AND APPAREL EMBELLISHMENT USING BATIK.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 1-124   Attributes: DOWNLOADABLE

 Amount: 3,000

 Nov 09, 2022 |  05:12 pm |  20


ADAPTATION OF HAM TRADITIONAL DESIGNS AS SOURCES OF MOTIFS FOR FABRIC AND APPAREL EMBELLISHMENT USING BATIK.


1.0 Introduction

Culture is the way of life as well as a heritage that is being passed from one generation to the other.  Among  the  countries  of  Africa,  according  to  Kashim,  (2011),  “Nigeria  has  taken  a prominent position when it comes to cultural heritage and creative art which are manifested in her diverse crafts”. The products of these indigenous craft have sufficiently served economic needs of the people in the local communities. 


Since the pre-colonial era, various members of distinct ethnic groups engage in a lot of traditional craft practices in the agrarian occupational engagement. Nigerian culture is very colourful especially when it comes to the textiles, it‟s a thing of pride for Nigerians. This study therefore, was motivated through the observations of the various traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people of Kaduna state. These designs could be very suitable as motifs in batik method of fabric embellishment in textile design.

 


 

1.1 Background of Study

  

This study is concerned with artifacts, traditional designs and motifs of the Ham people of Kaduna State. Ogunduyile, (2011) 0bserved that art has been noted to be the totality of all knowledge and values shared by a society. Creativity has been in existence right from the time of the ancient man; he used what he could find in his surrounding to solve his problems. Marvin and David, L. D wrote that human beings expressed themselves and told their stories in pictures long before they could read and write. They further explained that pictures on the walls of early cave dwellings  are  evidence  of  the  human  compulsion  to  describe  the  world  in  both representational and symbolic images. 


The Ham man is, therefore, not exempted in this story of the ancient man; he created and designed things with whatever he could find in his immediate environment. Development and industrialization of a country revolves around the modernization of the artifacts and crafts of the people. “The industrial development in a country involves considerable artifacts and crafts that develops in stages and which leads to a progressive growth” (Ajayi 2007). The use of these traditional designs is going a long way in saving the artifacts and crafts for the younger generation.


1.1.1 Brief Introduction to Kaduna State

Kaduna  state  is  a  state  in  the  central  Northern  Nigeria,  and  its  capital  is  Kaduna. Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of the then Northern protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religion and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from almost a virgin territory of small scattered settlement of the indigenous population of mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. 


This population comprise of the British colonies, artisans and clerks from the southern protectorate as well as laborers and traders from the Nupe, Hausa, Kanuris, Fulanis and other tribes in the Northern protectorate. Kaduna derived its name from the river Kaduna which gave the settlement its name; it was so called because it was crocodile infested, „Kadduna‟ being the plural of “crocodile” in Hausa, (Haruna 2013).


The state has at the moment 23 local government areas and all these 23 are all blessed with fertile land for farming of both food and cash crops, it‟s also for irrigational farming (fadama farming). The state is also blessed with several mineral resources like clay, gold, graphite and many others, which has made the state a center for several small scale businesses like pottery, textiles, poultry and many other petty trading. It is mostly dominated by the Ham, Gbagyi, Adara, Gong, Atyap, Hausa and some other ethnic communities, according to Dangel (2008). The Ham people occupy four local Government Areas in Kaduna state and they are Jaba, Jema‟a, Kagarko and Kachia Local Government Areas.


1.1.2 Brief Introduction to the Ham People


According to James (1997) the Ham people spread over an area of about 307 square miles (sqm) in Kaduna state of Nigeria. The origin of Ham include Nok, Kwoi, Zshiek( Kurmin Musa) Dung( Jaban  Kogo)  Chori,  Fai  ,  Ketere,  Sambang  Gida,  Sambang  Daji,Wenyom  and  other  Ham settlements in the southern part of Kaduna State. Like many peoples of northern Nigeria, the Ham, who are neither Hausa nor Fulani, have also adopted the Hausa language as part of their lingua franca. 


The Hausa Language is the Language commonly spoken in the Northern region of Nigeria. The Hausa Language to a greater extent has diluted and adulterated the native tongue (Hyam) of the Ham language often mutually in-twined or used interchangeably among younger generation that did not grow up with the native lingua franca hence the fading away of the Ham Language.

 

1.2 Statement of Problem

 

Civilization has affected the production of the Ham artifacts negatively in the sense that the production of these artifacts that are beautifully decorated with traditional designs has drastically reduced, thereby leading to the loss of some historical information. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper preservation and presentation of the Ham artifacts and traditional designs that could serve as means of saving information for the younger generation.


In Nigeria, what is mostly known about traditional designs and artifacts in art revolves around the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa and little is known about the minority ethnic groups who populate this country in their millions. 



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