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A STUDY OF TEACHERS’ ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN’S CREATIVE ART WORK S IN SOME PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

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 Nov 09, 2022 |  05:36 pm |  34


A STUDY OF TEACHERS’ ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN’S CREATIVE ART WORK S IN SOME PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE.


1.0 Background of the Study


Assessment in art, like with other forms of educational attainment rating, is an essential index of measuring growth and performance. But a major problem with art teachers has always been that they are not too clear about what is to be assessed and in what ways criteria can be defined ( Eisner, 1975; Olorukooba, 1990, 1992; ). Another dilemma facing most art teachers today is that they do not know the most appropriate method  to  use.  


Teachers  therefore  resort  to  using  different  methods  and  criteria  in assessing and measuring students’ artistic skill  and competence. The problem of art teachers is further compounded because they tend to believe that the art “product” of learners are indicators of progress with little or no attention paid to how the work is carried out.  This practice seems to overemphasize the  importance of product  at  the expense of the process. 


Mbahi (1999) considers this practice harmful to the learner because it turns attention away from artistic creativity to concerns for the picture or object itself. Some aspects of assessment in the arts are well established. For example, in the psychometric field, standardized tests of ability, aptitude, achievement and attitude which have adequate levels of reliability and validity are available (Olorukooba; 1981; 1990). These measures are designed to assess the more objectively scoreable aspects of artistic performance and perception  like creative abilities and art  products.  


Previous attempts at designing assessment in the 1960s and1970s (Wallach and Kogan, 1965) met with little success because the measures dealt with aspects of general intelligence which did  not  lead  to  any  new  insights  into  the  process  of  artistic  performance.  While Standardized Test are not considered adequate for assessing children’s creative art works, at the same time, there are always demands for the development of valid measures of children’s progress in art. As Eisner (1975) and Mbani (1999) observed; one major problem is that real – life artistic products are often judged by subjective criteria. 


In other words the only person who  can properly judge  a product  of art  is the person who produces  it.  However,  in spite  of  these  limitations,  the  argument  that  any  form  of assessment in the arts is appropriate is not tenable because it is against the idea of artistic creativity. Today, most art educators share the view that assessment and feedback both in the process of making art and the product form an important aspect of teaching and learning.


Researchers in the field have suggested two main reasons why standardized tests are unsuitable for use in art: (i) they mainly attempt to assess the characteristics of the person (producer) in favour of assessments of particular creative products within a given piece of work (Amabile, 1983). For example, Gardner and Grinbowan (1986) reported that  it  is  for  this reason  that  standardised  tests  of  art  in  production,  perception, appreciation and comprehension have reached their limits in the United State Educational System.  


They  propose  an  alternative  approach  to  assessment  based  on  a  workshop environment. This involves teachers and pupils working in an apprenticeship relationship. Pupils acquire artistic skills in the process by carrying out meaningful real-life project under the guidance of teachers while assessment takes the form of joint evaluation of pupils’ work. According to Wolf (1988), this method which has been developed in the Arts proved to be successful.


The second trends deals with the distinction made between what is referred as “formative” and “summative” forms of assessment. Formative assessment refers to a long- term evaluation of the process while summative refers to the overall evaluation of a piece of work which has been undertaken over a period of time. Both formative and summative assessment are complementary aspects of assessment in the arts though different researchers have tended to use one rather than the other. 


For example, Ross, et al, (1993) used the formative approach in an assessment of art activities in which the pupils’ self-assessment formed an essential part of the process. In this study, the researcher will find out art teachers’ modes of assessing pupils art works in some primary schools in Kaduna state. There can be no doubt that teachers do assess children’s works in art on daily basis. However, very little is known about how they do so.

 

1.1

 

Statement of the Problem:


Art teachers in our schools are confronted with numerous problems in assessing children’s creative art works, amongst which are as listed below:


i.

Art teachers are not too clear of what to assess.


ii.  

Another serious problem in art teaching is the fact that teachers do not know the most appropriate method to use in assessment.


iii. 

Most teachers are often confused as whether to limit assessment of children’s work in art to the “process” or “product”.


iv.  

Assessment  of  children’s  work  is  subjective  in  nature,  and  that  teachers  lack  a uniform method or format for assessing children’s work in creative art.


Since there is no proper guide or format whereby teachers could use in assessing children creative art works, they often resort to using different methods and criteria in assessing or measuring children’s creative ability in art. The  importance  of  assessment  in  teaching  and  learning  can  not  be over emphasize. It is only through this medium that a teacher can understand the progress of a child in any teaching subject. 


Osuagwu (1978) in supporting this view, mentions that like in other subject areas of the school curriculum assessment in art has always been used to determine the progress of learning and academic performance of students. The difficulty in assessing pupils’ works therefore is mainly due to the subjective nature of the personal art expression of the learner. Challinor (1978) cautions that because art differs from other subject in many ways, assessment in this subject should consider:


a.

The creative output of learners and

 

 

b.

The fact that quality is a changing variable.

 

Numerical ratings are given to art works whether produced by children, adolescents or matured students. Tests and examinations are given to learners regularly to build up a continuous assessment report on learners. The introduction of continuous assessment by the  Federal  Government  of  Nigeria  in  1981,  in  which  other  internal  and  external assessments are combined for the certification and prediction of future performance, makes it  necessary to device an acceptable means of assessing art works.


The main reason for the introduction of continuous assessment was therefore the liberalization of our educational assessment.  As contained  in the new National Policy on Education, (NPE, 1981), (Section 7.7), “Educational assessment and evaluation will be liberalized by basing them in whole or in part as continuous assessment of individual”.


By this system, both the C.A scores of an individual and final examination scores represent the overall performance of the student. This weighted score is believed to truly represent the student’s capacity. The weighted score so derived is subsequently used in decision-making  like  placement, prediction  of  future  performance  and  certification among others. However, many educators have expressed doubts as to the reliability of scores often sent to states Ministry of Education. 


For instance, Osuagwu (1997) and Mbahi (1999), among others also raised objection to the use of these subjective methods in assessing artistic process and method. Because individual art expressions vary, no two individuals are likely to react the same way to the same experience like no two art producers can be exactly the same. 



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