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AN ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY RISK FACTORS DURING INSTALLATION AND DISMANTLING OF TOWER CRANES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 1-53   Attributes: DOWNLOADABLE

 Amount: 3,000

 Nov 09, 2022 |  05:43 pm |  16


AN ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY RISK FACTORS DURING INSTALLATION AND DISMANTLING OF TOWER CRANES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES


Background of the Study

  

Tower cranes are used on construction sites as lifting equipment for their combination of height and lifting capacity. Tower crane accidents, however, are likely to be fatal because of the weight of the objects and the heights to which they are lifted (Beavers, Moore, Rinehart and Schriver, 2006).  U.S. Labour statistics recorded 632 crane-related construction worker deaths from 611 crane incidents and 17 multiple death incidents resulting in 38 deaths from 1992 to 2006 (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2008).


A crane safety analysis and recommendation report carried out in Singapore by Annex (2009) indicates that in 2008, there were 162 crane-related accidents, injuries and dangerous occurrences, a 27% increment from 128 cases in 2007. However, most of the cases involve less serious non-fatal injuries crane accidents can undoubtedly result to big and severe damage to physical properties and human lives.


Orji, Enebe and Onoh(2016) posit that construction processes in Nigeria are characterized by unsafe practices leading to accident that leaves severe consequences on both the project and the workers. Accidents in building construction sites, whether minor or fatal could result to injuries, loss of resources, partial or permanent disability and death in case of fatalities. In an analysis of types of accident that usually occur in construction sites, injury from the use of equipment ranked first among nine (9) other types of accident examined.


Idoro (2011) asserted that although there is no reliable construction accident/incident data in Nigeria nevertheless, a study carried out on 40 contractors in 2006 showed that the rate of accidents  and  injuries  in  the  Nigerian  construction  industry  were  high  and  the  most suitable safety ratios were 2 accidents per 100 workers and 5 injuries per 100 workers.



Kadiri, Nden, Avre, Oladipo, Edom, Samuel, and Ananso (2014) stated that as the growth rate of construction industry increases in Nigeria, this also causes an increase in competition of projects to be executed between construction firms which are however, achieved at the expense of the workers safety and their welfare.


In this way recognizing the different causes and impact of accidents on construction sites and proposing  ways  and  methods  for  decreasing  these  accidents  ought  to  be  recognized.


Erection/climbing/disassembling  of  tower  cranes  is  a  possibly  unsafe  process  including working at heights, awkward postures, lifting and adjusting parts of huge size and mass and introducing temporary support systems. These are all often performed under significant time pressure, as a result of this, the need for road closures, suitable daylight hours or short weather windows as the case maybe are pertinent (Safework, 2016).


The   most   unsafe   process   that   can   prompt   fatalities   at   construction   sites is   the installation/dismantling of tower cranes; for example, in 2012, the fall of a tower crane amid disassembling  at  the  University  of  Texas,  USA  claimed  the  lives  of  two  workers (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, [OSHA] 2012).


There have been five lethal accidents identifying with tower crane use amid 2002– 2006 in Hong Kong, with three workers losing their lives in July 2007 alone. One of such mishap in July 2007 resulted to two fatalities and five genuine wounds. The accident occurred amid the disassembly procedure, with workers on the tower crane as it was moving down (Ting, 2007).


Also in a related development, out of the 571 incident cases of crane related accidents that happened  from  2000  –  2009 in  the  U.S  as  examined by Zhao (2011), 41  cases  which amounted to 7.18% occurred during assembly/disassembly. He further went ahead to say that 22 cases (23.40%) of the 94 cases that occurred from 2007-2009 resulted directly from the operations of assembly/disassembly.Recent study of tower crane accidents in Korea from 2001-2011, showed that out of the 38 fatal accident cases involving tower cranes, 68.4% of the accidents resulted from the installation/dismantling operation (Shin, 2015).


Effective safety management is to make the environment safe, to make the job safe and to make workers safety conscious. In recent years, many developed countries have considered safety  as  one  of  the  important  management  issues  of  construction  projects,  especially, personal safety (Chen, Lu, and Huang, 2011).


Ali and Muhamad (2016) opines that without proper safety management of construction machines  at  construction  sites,  accidents  could  happen. Cranes  are  the  machines  that contribute to highest fatality rate in construction industry. It was concluded that cranes are machines  with  high  risk  and  should  be  operated  with  safety  management  and  strong communication between crane operator and signalman.


Hola (2010)  stated that,  the use of machines and equipment‘s  are  factors that  generate hazards on construction sites and these hazards could cause accidents which result to injuries or even loss of lives. Safety measures at construction sites assist to prevent unforeseen incidents. 


Accidents at construction sites may result to loss of life and involve huge expenses in terms of cost. The occurrence of fatalities in construction sites normally leads to site closure for accident investigation, loss of man/machine hours, high labour turnover, loss of organisation reputation, loss of output, payment of burial expenses/compensation/insurance claims for the dead as the case may be (Emiedafe, 2017).


The consequences of building construction accidents are enormous and cannot be easily quantified,  though  inevitable  but   could   be   controlled  to   prevent   minor  or  serious consequences to safety of workers (Orji et al., 2016).




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