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AN APPRAISAL OF COST-BASED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT METHODS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 1-97   Attributes: DOWNLOADABLE

 Amount: 3,000

 Nov 10, 2022 |  05:06 pm |  33


AN APPRAISAL OF COST-BASED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT METHODS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA.


1.1   BACKGROUND


Information is data that has been transformed into a form that has meaning and is useful to  human beings. Data on the other hand, are streams  of  raw  facts  that  depict  current  events  taking  place  in  an organization  or  environment,  before  they  have  been  organized  and arranged  in  a  form  that  is understandable  and  useful  for  people.


An information  system  is  a  system  that  processes,  stores  and  moves information  within  an  organization  (Bytheway, 2003). Information Management is the gathering of information from one or more sources, and then the distribution of this information to the audiences who have a stake or right to this information. The term “management” implies the organization  and  control  over  structure,  processing  and  delivery  of information.


ICT is an acronym for information communications technology, and  refers to  any product that has the  purpose  of  storing,  retrieving, manipulating, transmitting or receiving information electronically in a digital  form.  These  products  include  personal  computers  and  email (Anonymous, 2008). It is important to note that digital communication is the mainstay of ICT.


 

In business, ICT can be utilized in two ways:


1) 

Traditional computer-based technologies – that enable individuals perform tasks on computers at home or work; and


2) 

Digital communication technologies- that permit individuals and organizations  to  communicate  and  share  information  digitally. 


Taking this  a  step  further,  the  specific  areas  that  traditional computer technologies  can  be  utilized  are  in  the  use  of  word processing packages, spreadsheets, databases, presentation software and auto-computer aided design (auto-CAD).


According  to  Doherty  (1997)  the  construction  industry  utilizes computers in the following ways:


i. As communication systems


ii. As technical decision support systems


Communication can be achieved via connecting a desktop or laptop computer into the digital communication network, and exchanging short textual  messages.  For  technical  decision  support  systems,  computer application software forms the basis of computer use. These applications carry out various tasks (e.g. computing estimating) that aid in arriving at various diverse decisions.


Goh (2005), observed that the construction industry is experiencing a shift from “traditional” paper based methods of storing and managing information, to a more modern approach that entails digital information management. While   this   change   is   yet   to   be   totally   embraced, construction  design teams have begun  to utilize  software  that can be applied to all three professions (Engineering, Quantity Surveying, and Architecture). 


These software are applied in the areas of word processing, computer aided design (CAD) and spreadsheets. They aid administration, marketing, communication, presentation   and   project   management. (Doherty, 1997; Arif and Karam, 2001). The CAD software is used by engineers  and  architects  for  design,  drawing  and  presentation,  while quantity surveyors use it for measurement, estimation and preparing bills of quantities.(Rivard ,2000; Arif and Karam,2001, De Lapp et al; 2004, Oladapo,  2006).  


The  availability of 3D  modeling  capacity in modern structural design software makes it easier to design complex structures. (Walker  and  Hampson,  2003).  For  quantity  surveyors,  the  QsCAD, Masterbill,WinQs32 software(among others), speed up and enhance the accuracy of quantity surveying functions beginning from  approximate estimating to final accounts.


(Willis et al; 1994; Adetola, 1998, Murray et al; 2001, Oladapo, 2006). The impact of information management tools on construction design teams is also seen in the way computers have revolutionized  the  process  by  which  documents  are  generated,  hence leading  to  a  new  way  in  which  information  and  documents  are exchanged. 



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